Following a long and somewhat sleepy existence on the margins of contractual interpretation case law, force majeure clauses (“FMCs”)  found themselves subject to a rude awakening with the global onset of COVID in 2020, and consequent interruptions to all manner of contracts relating to global supply chains, major sporting events, and many other facets of business. The judicial analysis of how and when FMCs are engaged in international commerce has continued post-COVID, with the introduction of wide-ranging Sanctions against Russia.Continue Reading Sanctions, Certainty and Pragmatism – the Contemporary Context for Analysing Force Majeure clauses

On May 23, 2024, Russian Presidential Decree No. 442 (the “Decree”), which establishes the framework that will allow the Russian government to seize any U.S. assets in Russia, was signed. This comes just weeks after the U.S. Rebuilding Economic Prosperity and Opportunity for Ukrainians (REPO) Act, which authorizes the President of the United States to confiscate any sovereign assets of the Russian Federation that are in the U.S. territory, entered into force on April 24, 2024.[1]Continue Reading Potential Seizure of U.S. Assets in Russia

A key feature of the UK’s financial sanctions framework is that not only designated persons (listed on the UK’s Consolidated List) are subject to sanctions, but also entities that are ‘owned or controlled’ by designated persons, even if not themselves listed.Continue Reading The Control Test in the UK’s Sanctions Framework: Recent Developments

On October 23, 2023, the European Commission (the “Commission”) updated its non-binding Frequently-Asked-Questions guidance relating to the EU’s Russia-related sanctions regime (the “FAQs”).[1] Specifically, the Commission provided guidance on the meaning of ‘acting on behalf or at the direction of’ an entity in the context of sanctions targeting state-owned enterprises.Continue Reading European Commission Publishes New Guidance on Scope of Sanctions Prohibitions

In June 2019, PJSC National Bank Trust (the “First Claimant”) and PJSC Bank Otkritie Financial Corporation (the “Second Claimant”) commenced litigation in the English High Court, claiming substantial damages on basis of alleged conspiracies resulting in uncommercial transactions whereby loans were replaced with worthless or near worthless bonds.

Following the designation

On May 9, 2023, we wrote about Decree of the President of Russia No. 302 that created a framework for nationalization of Russian assets belonging to persons from “unfriendly” states (the “Decree”). At that time the only assets to which nationalization applied were the shares in strategic energy companies Unipro, controlled by the Government of

On June 23, 2023, the European Union published its 11th package of sanctions in relation to Russia. In addition to adding 71 individuals and 33 entities to the list of designated persons which are subject to sanctions, the new package fine-tunes the existing regime, with extensions primarily aimed at combatting circumvention more effectively and

On May 22, 2023, the President of Russia signed Decree No. 364 (“Decree 364”) On Certain Amendments to Decree of the President of Russia No. 430 dated July 5, 2022 (“Decree 430”) requiring Russian businesses who have issued Eurobonds to issue replacement securities to enable holders whose bonds are held through Russian depositaries to receive payments.Continue Reading Russian Obligors Are Required to Issue Russian Bonds Replacing their Eurobonds